Articles should discuss process equipment, the design of facilities, and utility systems that support the critical physical and chemical requirements of drug products, in addition to other aspects of the product specification. Topics include design and construction/installation, commissioning and qualification, operation and maintenance, and controls and automation.

Technical
Chlorine dioxide has been shown effective in decontaminating various types of chambers and volumes such as rooms, isolators, processing tanks, and entire facilities, but its use to decontaminate compressed gas piping systems has not been documented. This article discusses using dry gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2) to decontaminate an oxygen (O2) feed piping system in a...
Sponsored Content
The Industrial Mixers Handbook provides information and considerations for choosing an industrial mixer for food, pharmaceutical, chemical, biomass and mineral applications.
Technical
Chlorine dioxide has been shown effective in decontaminating various types of chambers and volumes such as rooms, isolators, processing tanks, and entire facilities, but its use to decontaminate compressed gas piping systems has not been documented. This article discusses using dry gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2) to decontaminate an oxygen (O2) feed piping system in a...
Sponsored Content
The Industrial Mixers Handbook provides information and considerations for choosing an industrial mixer for food, pharmaceutical, chemical, biomass and mineral applications.
Features
What do recipients of ISPE’s prestigious Facilities of the Year Award (FOYA) know that has helped their projects succeed? What are the lessons learned from achievements in facilities development, including forward-looking projects that encompass and inspire changes in the industry? Pharmaceutical Engineering® spoke with nine FOYA winners from recent years about the lessons they learned and...
Technical
Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) pose specific manufacturing challenges beyond those typically addressed by pharmaceutical chemistry. Often in current ATMP applications, a change in approach is introduced at some point in the development process out of convenience or necessity, which then results in a change in technology. This article analyzes the possibility of transferring a cell...
Features
Realizing the promise of any novel viral vector therapeutic depends on the innovator’s ability to constantly meet evolving program requirements set in the product’s preclinical; clinical; chemistry, manufacturing, and controls (CMC); and market strategies. A key enabler to success is establishing a robust yet nimble viral vector manufacturing platform that delivers high-quality product on time...
Sponsored Content
Nephron is a rapidly growing manufacturer of generic respiratory medications and a contract manufacturer of blow-fill-seal products. Also, as a 503B compounder, Nephron has made significant investments in the production of high-volume pharmaceutical preparations for interstate distribution. Adapting their production output to the constantly changing needs of the market requires frequent...
Sponsored Content
A scale-up can be compared to a weather forecast. It is usually correct for the next two days, but the forecast for the next week becomes increasingly imprecise due to the many influencing parameters. The same applies to development processes in...
Technical
Aseptic process simulation (APS) is essential for validation of an aseptic manufacturing process and is required by regulators to demonstrate the aseptic capability of such processes. A successful program of APS and aseptic manufacturing requires significant operator training, skills, and supervision; thorough maintenance; effective cleaning and disinfection; significant oversight of every...
Technical
This article presents the results of applying artificial intelligence (AI), such as machine learning algorithms, to identifying and predicting anomalies for corrective maintenance in a water for injection (WFI) processing plant. The aim is to avoid the yearly stoppage of the water for injection plant for preventive maintenance activities, common in the industry, and use a more scientific...
Features
This article revisits the concept of phased engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) and updates it with risk-based considerations specifically regarding the commissioning, qualification, and validation (CQV) of general life-cycle principles for pharma and biotech projects. Enhancing the relationship between phases of a project, advanced planning, and more formal management of...
Technical
Defining room temperature and humidity limits is a frequent topic of debate when designing and operating pharmaceutical and biotechnology facilities. What are appropriate alarm limits and acceptable durations for an alarm condition? Understanding the source of temperature and humidity requirements, and strategies for setting limits, can ensure both compliance and optimum use of energy. This...
Technical
Cleanrooms and controlled contamination environments are increasingly being used across many industrial sectors, including the pharmaceutical industry. An important issue is the operating cost associated with cleanroom energy consumption and, consequently, the identification of applicable energy containment measures. This article reviews pharmaceutical cleanroom calculations for...
Technical
One of the goals of the cleaning validation design phase is to define critical process parameters (inputs) and acceptance criteria (outputs) of the cleaning process. This article explores the selection of a master soil as part of the cleaning validation design phase for automated parts washers. The selection and qualification of a master soil through laboratory testing and during factory...
Features
In many critical ways, the design of facilities for multiple cell therapy processes is unlike the design of conventional pharmaceutical facilities. This article surveys several of the key issues to consider when designing facilities capable of manufacturing multiple cell therapies, including regulatory definitions, product life cycles, processing systems, relevant cell therapy technologies and...
Sponsored Content
The highest quality and safety standards are key criteria in the planning and development of production facilities for pharmaceutical and biotech companies. However, building services engineering is no less important and demands in this field have been increasing steadily over the past few years. HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) is a critical factor in this area and is subject...
Special Reports
Each year, ISPE celebrates innovations and advances in pharmaceutical manufacturing technology with its Facility of the Year Awards (FOYA) program. This year, we added a new category, Social Impact, to recognize companies that developed new standards and practices to prevent drug shortages and increase patients’ access to medicine, designed new tools or techniques that reduced the cost of drug...
Online Exclusives
In 2000, the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) introduced Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) to create a methodology to promote sustainability-focused practices in the building industry. This article reviews the earliest protype that we know of for a LEED manufacturing facility, presents a real-world case study of a pharmaceutical manufacturing facility achieving LEED Gold,...
Online Exclusives
We have some clarity over the desired end point of zero carbon within the next 30 years (or sooner for some pharma companies), but our industry is uncertain how we will achieve this objective. As pharma engineers, we will all play a role in delivering this end point through the continuous improvement of existing facilities and by designing, equipping, and building new facilities that will be...
Features
The article appraises the real-world experiences of two pharmaceutical companies approaching the rollout of energy- and water-reduction programs to selected facilities around the world. It is the result of more than two years of collaboration between the company corporate teams, individual site teams, and an external specialist consultant.
Features
Sustainability is a key principle for pharmaceutical companies in 2020. However, translating corporate goals into meaningful improvements can be a challenge, particularly when competing factors such as complex technical requirements or ambitious project schedules are involved.
Technical
Manual decontamination procedures are laborious processes and can be costly, requiring significant time and resources to complete. Manual procedures also may need to be repeated if initial efforts do not fully kill pathogens. To reduce failures and potentially reduce cost, chlorine dioxide gas decontamination was investigated as an alternative solution.
Features
Since the early 1990s, when the “upstart” biotech industry realized that its future success would be heavily influenced by the ability to manufacture multiple products within the same facility,1  the quest for flexible...
  • 1Hill, D., and M. Beatrice. “Biotechnology Facility Requirements, Part 1, Facility and Systems Design.” BioPharm International 2, no. 9 (1989): 20–6.
Features
Moving platforms from development to the delivery of more biopharmaceuticals to more patients is reality, not just a concept, for Moderna, Inc. Juan Andres, the company’s Chief Technical Operations and Quality Officer, presented on “mRNA Medicines—Industrializing a New Platform” at the
Technical
Cleanrooms and laboratories can save a significant amount of energy by reducing airflow of air handling units (AHUs) after closing hours. Although challenging, airflow reduction is a successful energy reduction measure and has been implemented within the energy reduction program of Janssen Vaccines & Prevention B.V. in Leiden, the Netherlands.
iSpeak Blog
How CMOs keep conditions controlled and reduce costs with temporary power, climate control, 100% oil-free air
Technical
The unavailability of a backup pharmaceutical water system has been a severe limitation for pharmaceutical manufacturers. Until recently, qualification concepts that adhered to current Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) guidelines hindered the rapid setup of a water system. A new, tailor-made qualification concept for mobile water treatment has been developed to align with guidance from various...
Technical
It is a common practice in the pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical industries to execute a factory acceptance test (FAT) for equipment involved with various drug manufacturing processes. The FAT is a project milestone in purchasing good manufacturing practice–compliant equipment.
Technical
Although other industry publications have explored the effect of surface finish on biofilm formation, background data indicating that imperfections exceeding the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Bioprocessing Equipment (BPE) standard are detrimental to chemical cleaning performance are lacking.1
  • 1Arnold, J. W., and O. Suzuki. “E ects of Corrosive Treatment on...
Technical
Although it includes some background material, this article is based predominantly on a series of interviews with SMEs at Eli Lilly, Janssen, Hovione, C-SOPS, and Patheon from October to December 2017. The comments and observations that follow are theirs.
Technical
Recent cyberattacks like WannaCry and Petya have affected GxP computerized systems, prompting questions on how to address risk from cyberspace using traditional computerized systems validation according to GAMP® 5. This article explores life cycle management of GxP computerized systems and associated cybersecurity risks that can affect patient safety.
Technical
Double-wall containment: an answer to unsafe piping systems While most in the pharmaceutical industry understand the need for double-wall containment piping systems, our field observations indicate that many companies do not. We frequently see pipes that should be (but are not) double-wall containment systems. This article presents an overview of the topic, so that readers who...
Features
Spurred by pressure from governments and consumers to curb rising drug prices, pharmaceutical manufacturers are increasingly willing to look beyond traditional batch processing to cut costs and increase efficiency. One of the industry's most dramatic innovations on this front is continuous manufacturing (CM). The technology, which produces drugs in an uninterrupted process, benefits...
InTouch
ISPE's 2018 Facilities of the Future Conference highlighted emerging technologies that are driving change in pharmaceutical manufacturing. Topics included virtual reality, robotics, artificial learning, machine learning, and 3D printing. Education sessions were divided into Industry 4.0 and continuous manufacturing (CM) tracks.  
Technical
This article shares a process used to evaluate terminal HEPA filter maintenance programs serving a parenteral manufacturing plant. The evaluation determines whether maintenance history data supports extending preventive maintenance frequency. Terminal HEPA filters in HVAC applications serving Grade B, Grade C, Grade D, CNC, and unclassified areas are...
Technical
Despite the advantages of ozone technology as a powerful commercially available oxidant and disinfectant, this technology has not been adopted broadly by the pharmaceutical industry. This article contains the rationale for applying ozone technology in a packaged system, which offers greater reliability and efficacy, using best practices that eliminate variables common in on-site integrated...
Technical
The following is an example of an evaluation of room air change rates for potential reduction using QRM, providing more detail on engineering considerations.
Technical
This article presents current research on the problem of rouge in clean steam generators and their distribution systems, as well as possible deleterious effects on capital equipment and final drug products.
Technical
This article presents the standards and guidelines typically used by manufacturers to design and build GMP washers and sterilizers. It describes the characteristics that differentiate GMP from regular laboratory equipment.