Defects Produced in Orbital Welding for Pharmaceutical Process Piping: Case Study and Simulation

This article evaluates the causes of defects in welds. The approach taken was to simulate conditions that can affect the quality of welds by changing the parameters used to diagnose defects. Weld quality was verified visually, since this is the most common method in pharmaceutical facilities, as recommended in American Society of Mechanical Engineers Bioprocess Equipment (ASME BPE) group regulations.